The batteries are connected in the same way as the cells are connected to obtain different voltage. And current values, and Solar manufacturer in Pakistan the matrix consists of several batteries that are connected to each other in parallel or in series to achieve the required design voltage.
When connected in series, the voltage value doubles and the ampere remains constant. For example, when connecting two batteries of 100 amps and a voltage of 12v in a row, the combined voltage becomes 24v and the amp remains 100,
but when connected in parallel, the amp doubles and the voltage remains constant. For example, when connecting two 100-amp batteries with a voltage of 12v in parallel, the voltage remains 12v, and the combined ampere becomes 100.
How to Maintain Solar Batteries
- It is important that all batteries are of the same type and condition if possible. This improves both the safety and performance of the battery array
- The battery matrix is configured by high series and parallel connection to achieve the required voltage. And ampere according to the charging regulator specifications such as 12/24/48/96/196V volts.
- Series connections include connecting the positive (+) connection of one battery to the negative (-) of the opposite battery.
The positive (+) of the first battery is used with the negative of the last battery to connect to the charging regulator.
And as shown in the picture, where 4 100AH 12V batteries were connected to get a matrix of 48V and a capacity of 100AH
- Parallel connection involves connecting the positive (+) connection from one battery to the positive (+) connection from the next battery.
And the same goes for the downside. The negative (-) of the first battery connects to the negative (-) of the next battery. The positive pole (+) of the first battery
is used with the negative pole of the last battery to connect to the charging regulator
Common Mistakes in the Use of Batteries
1- Directly connecting light bulbs, modems, and phone chargers to batteries outside the inverter frame.
But the inverter basically cuts off the electricity. When the battery capacity reaches 30% of its total capacity to protect it.
While the direct connection consumes the battery capacity to the end, which reduces its life span.
2- Loading the battery with large loads that discharge it in a very short time.
For example, a 200-amp-hour battery is used in air-conditioning with a capacity of 1200 watts. So it is drawn: 1200/12 = 100 amps at once in one hour only.
This large discharge causes battery damage or serious damage to it.
3-Using a charging regulator that gives a large current to charge a small battery very quickly.
For example, a charging regulator that gives a current of 60 amps charges one small battery with a capacity of 50 amps in less than an hour.
This fast charging quickly damages the battery, and therefore batteries of. Appropriate capacity must be used with the capacity of the charging regulator.
It is generally accepted that the charging current must not exceed 12% of the battery matrix ampere, so that it is charged in a period of no less than 8 hours in any case.
Battery charge percentage and voltage Table
It is possible to roughly know the charge rate in a 12 volt battery by reading the voltage. Value between the electrodes according to the following table: It
should be noted that these values may vary slightly according to the type of battery and the temperature.
The voltage is measured when there are no discharge loads on the battery.
The battery must also be in a state of rest for a period of not less than an hour since the last discharge load that occurred on it.
Note that during discharge, the voltage values are lower and may reach 11 volts.
During charging, the voltage values increase and may reach 14 volts. Therefore, the voltage values must be measured during the night when there is no charging by the panels.
Symptoms of bad batteries
1- Battery voltage is falsely high: When Solar energy in Pakistan batteries are stored for a long time without. Any charging or discharging, lead sulfate crystals form on the positive side of the battery.
This phenomenon is known in English as lead sulfate
crystals causing a large and false reading of the battery voltage.
This false voltage is quickly reduced to the true value when any small charge is discharged from the battery
and it is also prevented from charging the battery by the charging regulator that reads the false value of the voltage.
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